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The Temple of Artemis also known precisely as the Temple of Diana,was a Greek Temple dedicated to a goddess Greeks identified as Artemis was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was located in Ephesus (near the modern town of Selcuk in present-day Turkey),and was completely rebuilt three times before its eventual destruction in 401. Only foundations and sculptural fragments of the latest of the temples at the site remain.

The first sanctuary (temenos) antedated Ionic immigration by many years,and dates to the Bronze Age. Callimachus,in his Hymn to Artemis,attributed it to the Amazons. In the 7th century BC,the old temple was destroyed by a flood. Its reconstruction began around 550 BC,under the Cretan architect Cherisphron and his son Metagenes,at the expense Croesus of Lydia: the project took 10 years to complete,only to be destroyed in an act of arson by Herostratos. It was later rebuilt.

Antiper of Sison,who compined the list of the Seven Wonders,describes the finished temple.